Study: Obama Pays Less Attention to Race than Any Democratic President in the Last 50 Years


by Dr. Boyce Watkins

Research at The University of Pennsylvania says that the nation’s first bi-racial president has made among the fewest references to race in American history.  According to a study by Daniel Q. Gillion, an assistant professor of Political Science at The University of Pennsylvania, President Barack Obama has been the least racially-responsive Democratic President since 1961. Professor Gillion measured references to race with executive orders and statements on race during public speeches.

George Curry, writing on the matter at, summarizes the study’s results in an interesting way.  According to Curry:

That means he has paid less attention to race than John F. Kennedy, a liberal former U.S. Senator from Massachusetts, and three White Southerners who grew up under segregation – Lyndon Johnson of Texas, Jimmy Carter of Georgia and Bill Clinton of Arkansas.

Curry writes on Obama’s racial preferences in the context of a recent speech by White House Senior Adviser Valerie Jarrett, who insists that the president is not afraid to mention race in spite of substantial evidence to the contrary.   Jarrett made her remarks during a meeting with six journalists who came to visit her.

“If you look at the president’s record in the first four years, if you look at his major domestic policy accomplishments, they disproportionately do benefit the African-American community,” she said.

Jarrett continued, “If you look at the Affordable Care Act – roughly 9 million African Americans uninsured will have health insurance today – if you look at the president’s Recovery Act and subsequent budgets … If you went through the menu of tax incentives and unemployment that disproportionately benefit the African-American community, time and time again – I think unemployment insurance has been extended like nine times –every single time we had to fight the Republicans to get that done.”

I love what Valerie Jarrett is trying to say, because it perfectly explains much of the race strategy of the Obama Administration. This, my friends, is what could be called a racialized version of Trickle Down Economics.  It is a strategy which states that if we help everyone (starting with those at the top), then it’s going to filter down to the rest of us (meaning black folks).  The idea of targeting urban or black communities is taken off the table, despite the fact that we live in a nation that spent 400 years engaging in targeted strategies designed to create racial division.  As a response, we are fed the economic leftovers of an allegedly post-racial society that believes that racial inequality disappears when you simply decide not to be racist anymore.

The problem with this policy is that it didn’t work under President Ronald Reagan, and it’s not working now.  As NAACP President Ben Jealous (perhaps reluctantly) admitted, African Americans are far worse off under President Obama than even President Bush, and the racial economic gap continues to widen.  Since the recession began in 2008, Wall Street has seen a robust recovery, white Americans have seen improvements in their unemployment rate, and African American economic progress remains in the toilet.  In fact, when the recession is over, our unemployment rates will still be higher than the ones white people are complaining about right now.  There are few greater signs of inequality than the fact that white people are allowed to complain about 7% unemployment, yet black people (i.e. myself) can be called traitors for respectfully mentioning 14%.  Instead, we are expected to believe that black people don’t have jobs because they are a pack of lazy, uneducated negroes looking for a handout (which is an insult to many educated people who can’t find adequate work in this economy).

Now, if one were to buy into the notion that, according to Jarrett, the Obama Administration is breaking its back to help black people, then this leads us to a serious paradox.  The paradox is that if they are doing all they can to help the black community, and the community continues to be worse off, then the reason for the continued decline must be because there is something wrong with black people (yet another artifact of white supremacy, which tells us that whites are so much harder working than we are).  Hence, the administration being run by America’s first bi-racial president is leaning on white supremacy to excuse itself from working for black constituents as hard as it works for gay people and illegal immigrants.

Valerie Jarrett is a senior adviser and a smart woman, but let me give her some quick advice.

First, start telling the truth (a difficult task for any politician, I know).   The reality is that the Obama Administration knows that it can put the African American community on the back burner largely because some of us have such low political self-esteem that we are just happy to see a president with black skin.   Unlike other groups who fought for their gains from Obama, African Americans have rarely expressed the political will to make things happen for their children and their communities.  Valerie knows she can get away with style and no substance when it comes to King Obama.  Voting for Barack is not enough, we must also sacrifice our Democratic voice, which is something that I am NOT willing to do.

While there are those who argue that we expect more from Obama than past presidents, the fact is that we gave him more support than past presidents.  What’s most unfortunate, however, is that (by virtue of this study), we are now in the remarkable position of giving extraordinary support while begging for ordinary responses.   Some would say that it’s hard to argue that the Obama presidency was a good investment for black America:  The Obama family wins, and millions of black people lose.  I beg anyone to prove otherwise.

Second, stop inviting the same ineffective people to the White House to discuss black economic policy with the president.  The last I checked, Al Sharpton never studied economics and has rarely, if ever, created a job.  So, the logical way to explain your decision to pass over economic experts in order to speak with a preacher is that you would rather have meetings with black people who refuse to ask you the hard questions.   Al Sharpton is a strong man, but somehow you’ve weakened (or intimidated) him, and the rest of the black community is suffering because of it. I don’t know what happened to Rev. Sharpton, but I truly feel sorry for him.

Third, stop presuming that Obama’s success is the same as the success of the black community.  Yes, most of us want to support the president’s battles against the Republicans (I refuse to discuss Democratic ineptitude with Republicans until they offer better solutions), but most of us love our children more than we love your administration. This means that as the president fights for gay people and immigrants, we should fully expect that he is going to use his power to help black people find jobs, manage violence and confront the devastating impact of the prison industrial complex.  We are attacking these matters ourselves, but we can’t impact institutionalized racism the way President Obama can by picking up his pen and signing executive orders.

Valerie, I’m happy for Barack, really I am. But while the world stands cheering for Obama, the black community is dying a slow death.  This death is not due to some psychological malfunction we’re cursed with at birth, but due to the fact that some of our leaders (elected and otherwise) have fallen asleep at the wheel when it comes to unearthing the lasting impact of systematic racism.   In many cases, the term, “personal responsibility” is used to wag a finger at the black community.  But the other side of the coin is that responsibility rises to the top, and although President Obama can’t solve all of the problems of the black community, he certainly has an obligation to try.

Talk is always cheap, which is why politicians do so much of it.  It’s time to put your money where your mouth is.

Dr. Boyce Watkins is the founder of the Your Black World Coalition and author of the book, “Black American Money.” To have Dr. Boyce commentary delivered to your email, please click here.


81 Responses to Study: Obama Pays Less Attention to Race than Any Democratic President in the Last 50 Years

  1. Al Sharpton is just a reflection of a multitude of African Americans; he doesn’t understand the first thing about economics and this shows when he is constantly yelling for government expenditures while ignoring the fact that the taxes have to come from private pockets. Second, more African Americans need to get into Accounting so that they can understand the so called “oil subsidies” and “tax breaks”. while listening to his show yesterday, for amusement of course, I suddenly realized that he is the Victim-In-Chief of the African American community.
    Somebody brought up government spending programs getting to excessive under Obama, and he launched into a tirade about slavery, civil rights, poll tax and other ancient stuff that didn’t have anything to do with the caller’s point!!! lmao!

    While we are at it, Boyce Watkins’ friend Wilmer Leon is just as ignorant about economics and the aftermath of liberal policies as the rest. Another thing about the genius is that tyrants like Gaddafi and Mugabe are leaders to be looked up to because they oppose the west.
    If you ask him and Boyce what they want the President to do, they will say “targeted polices” to bring jobs as if the vague term makes sense. They are already countless ways to pull yourself up out of whatever s**t hole you came from instead of looking for more government paternalism like your so called leaders and “intellectuals” advocate.

    About Cornel West, give it a rest Boyce. A communist theologian of jewisbh mythology wouldn’t know the first thing about “fighting poverty”.

    And Joe Madison has to be one of the most arrogant and ignorant peeople on the planet, but the truck drivers he Lords over every morning wouldn’t know that.

    • Shut up foreign negro. YOU KNOW NOTHING! Just keep stealing opportunities that should go to the ancestors of American slaves.

      Just keep kissing white b**t, and praising them and reassuring them that the rascism in this country is OK cause you were lucky enough to steal an opportunity that American blacks made possible. You are too fool to realize that when we go down you will go down with the rest of us.

      All these opportunites you speak of; could they be:

      the opportunity to steal identities

      the opportunity to steal through marriage

      the opportunity to set up scams to get govt money and to dupe the students and parents

      the opportunity to bilk medicaid like most foreign doctors do

      the opportunity to go fight the white mans’ wars and come home with PTSD

      the opportunity to smuggle drugs


  2. Deeds speak louder than words. His deeds show me than he cares about all people. There is always somebody our there trying to divide us.
    Dr. Watkins you are really a very small person!!!!

    • You are correct Maxwell, so many African-Americans don’t realize that Presidet Obama is the President not a magician. He deserves some credt for his accomplishments. What are we doing to help ourselves?


  3. Ubermensch, I am an accountant and a physicists and I’ve just accounted for the absolute reason why masses of Black people are weighted down and trapped in an abyss of despair by the tons of ignorance by the likes of Negros like you. You must be the mentally challenged cousin of Rev. Al Sharpton that is reported to have wandered off the reservation.

    So Mr. Universe of Capitalism, tell us multitudes of African-Americans, your “first thing about economics”? Inquiring minds are waiting to be enlighten.

  4. I was quite startled as mr.obama gave his second oath of office speech
    on the very holiday of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. mr.obama never made direct mention of Dr. King and I felt a deep slight was done to the Black community of those Freedom Fighters who made it possible for mr.
    obama to even be able to drink from a dirty White water fountain in the Jim Crow south of these United States.

    I have never been fooled by the big smile…do yourselves a BIG favor and take a good look at this man’s inner circle.

    Don’t see anyone who looks like YOU? You won’t!

    I rest my case.

  5. Dr.Boyce:

    I have a great appreciation for what YOu do and the consistency of sound information and conversation.

    God bless You, brother, and every good wish…

    Charles Micheaux

  6. Blacks in this country is always complaining about racism instead of taking their share of anything slated for the masses. We are among the masses, stop leaving everything for the whites, while you complain we all have a brain use it. The Jews, latinos and chinese grabs whatever is out for minorities so should we, instead of looking for a label that says african american.

    • Take what is there for the masses. Now, let’s see what you mean.

      Employment – cant take that when they’re not hiring your color.

      Owning business – cant take that without money and a govt license. Whites control licensing. Cant even babysit without a govt license.

      Education – cant get none of that when any little childhood mistake gets you suspended.

      So that leaves your black self with:

      drug dealing – cant do that without risk of losing your freedom.

      military – cant do that without risk of death.

      move to africa – cant do that because every african has to have a job before a foreigner can get one.

      move to caribbean – cant do that because every caribbean has to have a job before a foreigner can get one.

      write a book – the table and travel will eat up all your profits.

      sell on the internet – search engine results go to the ones with the most money

      • Step up to the plate Carol, everything you mentioned is a excuse for not doing what is required to reach your dream.

        Yes you have to have a license for most things, it helps to insure that you have a business and not just faking it!
        Yes even to babysit, I shouldn’t have to tell you why!

        Education is free! If you want to be a success you don’t have the time or inclination to do something that would get you suspended!

        NO more excuse’s, do what you need to do!

        Write a e-book you get most all of the profits, and you will get many more sales!

        You don’t need to own a search engine, you need only a good web page!

        No more whining! get up! NOW!

        • Boy I have done all of that and more!!! You are some really old dude who got lots of benefits during the civil rights era, and you are full of yourselves, and stupidly believing you did all of whatever you did with your help, eventhough your daddy and granddaddy worked twice as hard as you and ended up with way less because the political environment was hard for a black man to suceed, just like it is today. A FEW CAN SURVIVE EXTREME HARDSHIPS BUT THE MASSES WILL FALL BY THE WAYSIDE. AND THAT IS NOT JUST TRUE FOR BLACKS, BUT WHITES TOO.

  7. From what we have experienced in this country by the hands of a white racist society we have a right to expect something from the government and even more from the first black president. Unfortunately, so far much has failed. Obama may do a little more then he has for blacks before he leaves office but don’t get your hopes up. He has to live and eat with the rich and the withies that spend their money on him. Most blacks voted for him because he was black. His polices surely did not reflect that of our communities. He is not the same man that worked the south side of Chicago. The man that he is now isn’t thinking about the poverty that plagues our people or unusual punishment in prison on blacks, illegal sentences, employment. He doesn’t speak of race because he’s afraid to upset the wrong people. He doesn’t feel the pain of the black community, perhaps no one will.

    • Stop whining Terry; you, we don’t have a right to anything that’s not in the Constitution!

      We and others, already get more from the Government than we deserve!

      Learn to make your own way, the only thing stopping you is attitude!

  8. You southside Chicago negroes been hoodwinked, bamboozled and ran amuck.

    He was sent there by Harvard, to STUDY you like an insect, and to marry one of you to gain your trust.

    Before Chicago he had no experience with blacks at all.

    Now that he got what he wanted from you, your trust, he can now show his true colors.

    Harvard did the same thing to the American Indians, right before they were genocided. Watch the movie, Geronimo.

  9. Can we Black Americans expect anything other than less than the status quo from a president who has steadfastly stated that he is not the President of Black America. His loyalites should be clear to anyone that cares to observe his actions. However, we cannot place all the blame at his feet when we as a people do not control one industry within the American Industrial complex. In addition those among us that have been blessed enough to be granted wealth have not made the sacrifice to create a means for Black American to participate in the big picture. The Entertainment Industry provides the greatest path for wealth for Black Americans which places those select few in the position of having to be mindful of from where their wealth is derived and the fact is our President suffers from this this mindset as well with all the power that he has at his finger tips, he is still afraid of p*****g off White folks.

  10. what a great article,please continue with the truth, some people will be set free.

  11. I just want my 2000 plus a month back in taxes I pay and ill do what i want with it. Why should I support any of those in power. Silverbac, tell them to do for self, no more public tax dollars to fund private projects, no more 100 billion in oil subsidies, no more public dollars for private defense contractors ( who is the most scared of sequester), let everyone practice Darwin’s survival of the fittest theory, they pay for their stadiums and leatherback chairs, you pay for yours, and ill pay for mine! ! How bout that. ? Adaptation right? No more ” bridges to nowhere “!. Every man and company for him/herself! ! Koo. ..? No more welfare for anybody, fatnecks included! ! Maat. ..




  12. I will say I’m an American first, I’ve been to 6 of the 7 continents, many countries and more cities than I care to count!

    I can say unequivocally, I would never even consider living any where else. Those of you who have not had the opportunities that I have, I don’t believe can really comprehend the greatness or how well off we Americans have it, why do you think so many people from all over the world are trying to get into this country of ours?

    I voted for the President the 1st time.
    However by November of last year I had already seen the light!
    I didn’t vote for him again!

    In my opinion he is in way over his head; he has and is fundamentally changing this nation!

    Their is not enough money in America to do all of the social things he wants to do, and most people do not seem to understand that.

    The President lies to the people and know one seems to care! It’s like the sequester he but into place 2 years ago, now that it is upon us he says “if it happens it’s the oppositions fault”, hoping know one recalls it was his proposal in the first place.

    He said he has saved or created 7.6 million jobs, know one challenges him on that, How do you prove you have saved jobs? Why is the nation still at 8% unemployment if what he says is true?

    I noticed today gasoline for my automobile is $4.09 per gallon, it was $1.90 when he came into office, know one cares.

    My new Pass Port will be here in a day or two and I’m out of here again in a month. I might recommend that you forget about the President doing something for you, he associates only with the same 1% that he is in contempt of and is busy doing for them what he fails do for you.

    Most of us have become very lazy in thought and deed primarily because in my way of thinking, we are given so much we are afraid to step out on our own to do those things necessary to survive.

    What if you were told in exactly 4 years from today all of the things you depend upon the government for will stopped! What would you do? How would you prepare? Think about it! Now go get started! NO Whining, NO blaming whites, Think about it and go do it! The President does not govern he sounds good, he may be the best ever at reading a prepared speech, take away the prompter and see what you get then. You can love him if you like, I would however challenge you to criticize President Obama the same way we criticized Former President Bush, then let me know how great you think he is.

    • You said it all in a nutshell! But no one is hearing the truth. They don’t want to believe that their precious POTUS isn’t looking out for their best interest even though all the numbers show that he’s not. Wonder who wiil get the blame after their eight years of h**l.

    • When Odrama behaves so unethically as the top Statesman in the land, I am so ashamed, because they call him the black president. I feel embarassed for him, me, and the entire race. It is the first time in my life I have felt this way, and used to be proud of being black. I really hate it when he mentions our Black heroes, and give us this symbolic jesture in the same way that the worse white rascist would do. He can give others concrete policies that uplift, but to us all we get is symbolic gestures.

      I would be willing to bet that when his second term is up he will abandon Chicago for Hawaii. Quite frankly I cant see Michelle and her mother living anywhere but black Chicago. When she graduated from law school, not only did she return to Chicago, but didnt even move up to a better neighborhood on northside, white chicago, like most upper income blacks do. So they might not divorce on paper, but they will officially separate when that second term is up. He was only using her anyway. He had something to prove, and he doesnt need her any more.

      He’s embarrased us so much already, I wouldn’t be surprised if he takes Cocoa from Ice T LOL LOL LOL LMAO

  13. Dr. Watkins, why can’t we help ourselves more? Why are you always bashing President Obama? What have you done for us? Why can’t our people see Obama as a beacon paving a pathway for those who wish to follow, not necessarily to become president, but to bring ourselves up!!! He made it, and so can others who strive to do so…

    • Ruby you didnt vote for boyce watkins, and u didnt set him up in a mansion with limos and servants at his beck and call.

      Please learn why we vote, and what the duties of a president are.

  14. Black americans: stop whining and wake up. Obama doesn’t owe you anything. Keep crying, that’s why foreigners that you dislike so much are taking your jobs. @ carol, you are pretty pathetic.

    • If you had a brain you would know that he owes black america EVERYTHING – his job, his lifestyle, and we even gave him his wife.

      As for foreigners taking jobs, IT was our marches and wish, for ALL blacks and browns and yellows to prosper in America. When our ancestors asked for this, they Never dreamed they would be repaid with ingratitude, and disrespect, and thievery. How were they to know that hedonistic american haters would inherit from their work.

  15. I attempted to read through all of the comments today and virtually all of them to some degree have merit.

    This is a ‘how many ways can you get to the number 10′ question; 6+4 7+3 8+2 9+1 etc!

    To me, from the beginining it has been quite clear that Pres. Obama would not necessarilly be looking out for the Black America, I wasn’t under any illusion with regards to his ascendancy because to some measure I understand the western political process…still learning!

    I think its even fair to say that Pres. Obama is not even interested for the poor of this nation generally speaking let alone black folk as he consistantly refers to the ‘middle-class’ in his speeches and he’s prepared to do for them, proof of this is in his presidential debates with Mitt Romney throughout the election.

    In order to even be in the running of the presidency you would have to concede and compromise on many things and owe your allegence to primarily to corporate business and various individuals within academia, think-tanks and lobby groups, none of which have any regard for the plight of Black people or even common white folk.

    Mr Obama is where he is to keep the white power structure in place due to the fact that we black people were waking up at a rate that alarmed them way before Obama took his seat in the White House…what do I mean???
    Jena 6, countless murders of black people in Florida by law enforcement, the Hurricane Katrina aftermath etc, these incidents and more were enough to tip the societal scales to cause revolution and bring widespread anarchy to the streets pre-2008.

    They knew from our stand-up comedians over the years that we were always saying that we would never see a black president and that the blackest one we had was Pres. Clinton (tut-tut-tut!!) so they knew to swing things around with a ‘miracle’ by pushing Mr Obama out there for us.
    One must also bare in mind that they study our thinking trends on a daily basis as we like to talk about the ‘first black’ to do this or that and they know that with carting out somene who looks like us
    we would be satisfied with that fact alone and would be lulled to sleep again because we now have a ‘black president’ among people who are not politically savvy on a whole and do not know how to go about achieving things for the community from Washington DC on a political basis through effective lobbying…we just happy he black!!

    On one hand we cannot expect for Pres. Obama to help us for the reasons mentioned above but also on the other hand we should expect for the president to hear & heed our unified & orderly call for justice.
    We ourselves have an obligation to do what is necessary to secure love, respect and appreciation for ‘self’ and kind FIRST before we ask the government for anything….this is why I used the term ‘unified & orderly’ in the aforementioned paragraph!

  16. John somegitback Brown

    political expediency or straight up diss ?

  17. John somegitback Brown

    I support Obama…..but not 100%…..just do not understand…how a man whom knows more graphically, then any other President before him…what it means to be black…and on the margins of white society…and being a former community activist…his awarness of that fact should be maximized……the black vote whom gave him his unprecedented victories…in record percentages……agendas are being put on the back burner….this an opportunity….for real talk , real action, real solutions….to and ages old problem EQUALITY……so what gives…with so called black leaders…and others that care about truth/democracy to raise collected voices concerning this issue….are they all kowards….or r they afraid of losing…..their many perks?!?

  18. Pingback: More On Barriers To Meaningful Conversations On Race And Racism | eGrollman

  19. Pingback: Soledad O’Brien Makes Deal With CNN |

  20. We all need to take a deep breath and listen to what Samuel Jackson said when he supported Pres. Obama for his second term. “Wake the @#!* up! Yes I am a Pres. Obama supporter. He is doing more for Black people than any other president that I have seen. Sure I know it is not blatant but he has got our back and I got his.
    The first thing we need to understand is that we have not been doing anything for ourselves for decades. We want to blame the president for our unemployment situation which is over 15% well its been like that for over the last half century! You sooth slayers out there where have you been for all those years did you complain to past presidents about this problem. What have we done to correct this employment problem. NOTHING
    African Americans have an annual disposable income of One Trillion dollars that’s larger than all the economies of the world except 14 and the G8 (Eight of the world’s largest economies) includes over half of them. Think of what would happen if we channel 10% ($100 billion) of our disposable income back into our institutions and communities. Think about how many jobs it will create for our people, how much shared wealth it will create for us. It’s the easiest thing in the world for us to do, redirect our own money into African American financial institutions and businesses etc.
    Where are our leaders that can solve our economic problems? Who are the Black economic leaders that come to mind when we need to talk about finance and the capital markets. Instead of pointing the finger at someone else look in the mirror and ask yourself what have I done to move the Black nation forward for our children and future generations. If you can’t answer this question positively then you are just as much a part of the problem as the people holding us down.
    Peace .

  21. Wimpson Washington

    This lengthy article is spent talking about what Obama is not doing, but does not give any suggestions as to what he ought to be doing. What more do you want him to do? Corporations have run the country for the last 20 years and screwed black people and poor people to no end until they ran the country off the cliff. Remember Kennedy/Johnson era–the beginning of corporations forced to hire minorities and Union were overseers of the corporations and blacks, once seniority was established could get the better jobs? Other companies were forced to raise wages based on union jobs in order to compete. Fast forward 20 years. Blacks finally get seniority to get the better jobs. Seniority not so good anymore. Ronald Regan: Corporations and whites love him. Union busting, downsizing, ousourcing, merging. Corporations and the 1% in control. I’m sure you remember the rest. They are not giving our president anything and us anything because they see him as us and will give in to nothing that will make him look half way good in history. What would you have Mr. President do?

  22. Pingback: From Blue to Green: Why I Left the Democratic Party |

  23. Dr. Boyce is finally on point….enough time has passed for the President to mention us by name and do something for us. Not everything, but something. I understand the quandry the President faces, yet he has to be brave, take a risk and do something and stand by it. If not, no one else who comes after him will – Democrat or Republican.

  24. Pingback: Green Papers: Diverse Views from a Green Perspective

  25. Bridgett Marino

    Climate change is a significant and lasting change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns over periods ranging from decades to millions of years. It may be a change in average weather conditions, or in the distribution of weather around the average conditions (i.e., more or fewer extreme weather events). Climate change is caused by factors that include oceanic processes (such as oceanic circulation), biotic processes, variations in solar radiation received by Earth, plate tectonics and volcanic eruptions, and human-induced alterations of the natural world.:

    Good day to you

  26. Climate change is a significant and lasting change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns over periods ranging from decades to millions of years. It may be a change in average weather conditions, or in the distribution of weather around the average conditions (i.e., more or fewer extreme weather events). Climate change is caused by factors that include oceanic processes (such as oceanic circulation), biotic processes, variations in solar radiation received by Earth, plate tectonics and volcanic eruptions, and human-induced alterations of the natural world..

    Remember to take a look at this useful homepage

  27. Pingback: Pres. Obama To Morehouse Students: ‘…You Have to Work Twice as Hard’ | Black Blue Dog

  28. I simply couldn’t leave your site before suggesting that I really loved the standard info an individual provide for your guests? Is gonna be again continuously in order to inspect new posts

  29. Howdy the significant other! I wish to declare that pros and cons awesome, wonderful published including about all significant infos. I’m going to glimpse extra content similar to this .

  30. Pingback: Conditionally Accepted | More On Barriers To Meaningful Conversations On Racism

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>